dpkg-query -Wf '${Installed-Size}\t${Package}\n' | sort -n  

Similar the the RPM equivalent. However, the above doesn't seem to always list the "Installed Size" - you can always fall back to this brute force method:

dpkg --get-selections | cut -f1 | while read pkg; do dpkg -L $pkg | xargs -I'{}' bash -c 'if [ ! -d "{}" ]; then echo "{}"; fi' | tr '\n' '\000' | du -c --files0-from - | tail -1 | sed "s/total/$pkg/"; done | sort -n  

YMMV